Use the interactive tool below to navigate indicators that show how poverty and inequality affects children in London.
Child dependency ratio by area over time (2000 - 2030)
The child dependency ratio in the rest of England is higher compared to Inner London, but lower compared to Outer London.
In 2019, there were 33.7 children for every 100 working-age adults within Outer London. This figure is both higher than the child dependency ratio in Inner London (26.3 children per 100 working-age adults) and the rest of England (30.9 children per 100 working-age adults).
The child dependency ratio is an indication of how many under 16s working-age people need to support. Since 2000, the child dependency ratio has fallen in Inner London and the rest of England but risen in Outer London. Across London and England, the child dependency ratio is projected to peak to have peaked in 2019 before gradually declining.
Childhood obesity by London borough
Childhood obesity for children in Year 6 by London borough (2008/09 and 2018/19)
Childhood obesity is more prevalent in London than England overall. In 2018/19, some 23.2% of children in Year 6 were considered obese in London, compared to 20.2% in England.
Over the last decade, the prevalence of childhood obesity has risen by 1.9 percentage points in both London and England overall. The majority of boroughs had a higher prevalence of childhood obesity than England overall in both 2008/09 and 2018/19.
Public Health England’s latest figures in 2018/19 show that Barking and Dagenham has the highest proportion of childhood obesity out of all London boroughs at 29.6%. The borough also had the largest rise in childhood obesity since 2008/09 (a 5.5 percentage point increase). At the other end of the scale, 10.7% of Year 6 children in Richmond upon Thames are obese, and this rate has fallen by nearly a percentage point since…
Child poverty and type of housing
Number of children in poverty by housing tenure in London (2005/06 - 2018/19)
Those living in the private-rented sector have both the highest rate and level of poverty in London. Over 900,000 private renters are in poverty in London, compared to 560,000 owner occupiers and 890,000 social renters (those who rent from local authorities or Housing Associations).
People living in the private rented and social rented sectors have similarly high levels and rates of poverty. In 2018/19, 960,000 Londoners in social rented housing were in poverty, slightly higher than the 920,000 private renters in poverty.
The poverty rate for those in the private-rented sector is 37%, compared to 24% for owner occupiers and 39% for social renters.
The current situation reflects a major shift in the nature of poverty in London. In the last decade, the number of Londoners in poverty living in the private-rented sector has increased by 90%. P…
Children in poverty before and after housing costs
Proportion of children in poverty before and after housing costs by London borough (2018/19)
This indicator shows the large disparity in poverty rates for children in different London boroughs. Tower Hamlets is the borough with the highest rate of child poverty (after housing costs), with a rate (55%) which is more than three times as high as that of the boroughs of Richmond and City of London with the lowest rates (17%).
It also demonstrates the large impact that the cost of housing has on poverty in the capital. In the borough with the highest poverty levels (Tower Hamlets), 27% of children are classified as being in poverty before housing costs are considered. Taking account of housing costs increases this figure to 55%.
In all but two boroughs, the child poverty rate at least doubles when housing costs are accounted for (and even these two Barking and Dagenham and Newham the `After Housing Costs` rate is 1.9 times the `Before…
GCSE attainment in English and Maths by London borough
GCSE attainment - grades 9-4 in English and Maths by London borough (2019)
State-educated students in London have higher GCSE attainment rates than those in England as a whole, with 68.7% of students achieving grades 9-4 (A*- C under the old grading system) in GCSE English and Maths in 2019 compared to 64.9% in all of England.
Over two thirds of the London boroughs have a higher GCSE attainment rate than the average rate of England. The boroughs with the highest GCSE attainment rates are Sutton, Barnet, and Kingston upon Thames, which saw between 78.4% and 79.7% of their students achieving grades 9-4 in English and Maths in 2019.
GCSE attainment in English and Maths, by population sub-groups
GCSE attainment by ethnicity (2019)
In general, GCSE attainment is higher in London than in the rest of England. This is true for both boys and girls, students who do not speak English as a first language, students with Special Educational Needs and students from minority ethnic backgrounds.
In both London and the rest of England, girls perform better at GCSE than boys, with 72% of girls achieving grades 9-4 (the equivalent of A*-C under the old system) in English and Maths in London, but only 66% of boys.
Students with English as a second language perform slightly better than those who speak English as a first language in London, whilst the two groups perform similarly in the rest of England.
Students with Special Educational Needs needs have much lower attainment than the average student and the attainment gap is roughly the same in London and the rest of England.
Households affected by the benefit cap
Number of London households affected by benefit cap (2013-2020 (August))
The benefit cap limits the amount of benefit that most working-age people can receive. In London the limit is £23,000 per year or £15,410 for single adults with no children; this was reduced in 2015. The benefit cap is applied by either reducing Universal Credit or Housing Benefit (for those not claiming Universal Credit).
The benefit cap reduced the benefits of 33,113 London families more in August 2020 compared to August 2019. This means that the number of families with their benefits capped in London has risen by 166% in the last year.
A possible explanation for this unprecedented increase could be the influx of new households on Universal Credit since the start of the pandemic. Furthermore, the additional £20 pound per week for those on Universal Credit could place households in a position where their benefits would be capped.
Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births (2001-2019)
In 2017-2019, the average number deaths per 1,000 live births was higher in England (3.9) than in London (3.4).
To get to this point, infant mortality rates have fallen significantly in both London and England over the last two decades. In 2001-2003 the rate was slightly higher in London than in England overall, with an average of 5.7 deaths per 1,000 live births, while in England this figure was 5.4. In 2009-2011 the infant mortality rates were on average similar (4.4) in both London and England.
In the years since, the infant mortality rate has fallen further in London (a reduction of 1 death per 1,000 live births) than in England (a reduction of 0.5 deaths per 1,000 live births).
Infant mortality by London borough
Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births by London borough (2016-18)
Whilst infant mortality rates vary significantly across London boroughs, in all but eight boroughs, they are lower than in England overall.
The average number of deaths per 1,000 live births in 2016 to 2018 was 3.3 in London, whereas in England it was 3.9. Kingston upon Thames is the borough with the highest infant mortality rate in London (5.6 per 1,000 live births). Richmond upon Thames is the London borough with the lowest infant mortality rate (1.5 per 1,000 live births).
Material deprivation of children
Material deprivation of children in London (2018/19)
More children are materially deprived in London than the rest of England whether or not they are in poverty. Material deprivation is based on a weighted score of responses to questions about what material things - such as a warm winter coat or a safe outdoors space to play - children go without.
In 2018/19, nearly half (45%) of children living in households in poverty in London are classed as materially deprived, compared with 37% in the rest of England. For children who do not live in households in poverty, the proportion of materially deprived children is 12% in London and 10% in the rest of England.
More than half (53%) of children in London in poverty went without a holiday away from home for at least one week a year with their family, the highest rate for any item or activity.
Poverty and family structure
Proportion of households in poverty by family type (2018-19)
Poverty rates amongst most household types in London are higher than in the rest of England. For example, the poverty rate for couple pensioners (22%) in London is almost twice that of couple pensioners (12%) in the rest of England. Similarly, 29% of couples with children are in poverty in London compared to 22% in the rest of England. Couples without children have similar poverty rates in both London (13%) and the rest of England (12%).
Single parents with children are more likely to be in poverty than any other type of household. Over half of single parents in London (53%) were in poverty, more than four times the proportion of couples without children.
The biggest gap in poverty rates between London and the rest of England is found with couple pensioners, where 22% live in poverty in London, but only 12% do outside of the capital.
Poverty and life stages
Poverty for children, pensioners and working-age adults (2007/08 and 2017/18)
Children, working age adults and pensioners all have higher rates of poverty in London than in the rest of England. Of the three age groups, children have the highest poverty rates with 37% of children in London in poverty, compared to 25% of working-age adults and 24% of pensioners.
In both London and the rest of England, poverty rates fell between 2007/08 and 2017/18 for children but rose or remained flat for working-age adults. The poverty rate for pensioners rose in London but fell in the rest of England.
Poverty before and after housing costs by age
Proportion of Londoners in poverty after housing costs by age band (2018/19)
Children, working age adults and pensioners all have higher rates of poverty in London than in the rest of England. Of the three age groups, children have the highest poverty rates with 40% of children in London in poverty, compared to 26% of working-age adults and 23% of pensioners.
In both London and the rest of England, poverty rates fell between 2008/09 and 2018/19 for children and working-age adults in the rest of England. Although, poverty rates remained flat for those working-age adults in London at 20%. Also, the poverty rate for pensioners rose in London but fell in the rest of England.
Poverty definitions and thresholds
How much weekly income is needed to not be in poverty?
|Household types||Minimum Income Standard - Inner London (AHC), 2018||Minimum Income Standard - Outer London (AHC), 2018||UK poverty line - After Housing Costs, 2019||Destitution, 2018|
|Lone parent, one child (aged one)||£291||£308||£209||£90|
|Couple with two children (aged three and seven)||£503||£520||£381||£140|
Note: MIS figures are updated to reflect the report produced by Loughborough University for TfL in 2019. For family types where updates are not available we have carried forward the 2016/17 data and adjusted for inflation by CPIH. Destitution is defined by the JRF as people who went without 2 or more essentials in the past month because they couldn't afford them, or their income is extremely low
Data source: Poverty thresholds are from Households Below Average Income 2017/18, Department for Work and Pensions. Minimum Income Standard thresholds are based on the Minimum Income Standard (MIS) for London, Trust for London 2018. Destitution in the UK 2018, JRF
The table shows different definitions and thresholds necessary to not be considered either in poverty or deprived. The amount of income is dependent on the type of household.
Poverty for London's adults, children and pensioners, by family work status
Number of children, adults, and pensioners in London in poverty by working status (2007/08, 2012/13 and 2017/18)
As employment rates have increased in the capital, so too has the number of adults in poverty who are in working families. In 2007/08, 740,000 working-age adults were in poverty in working families, compared to 1.05 million in 2017/18 (a 42% increase over the decade). There is a similar story for children in working families in poverty; 340,000 children were in this position in 2007/08, compared to 550,000 in 2017/18 (an increase of 62% over the decade).
In contrast, the number of working-age adults and children in poverty who are in workless families have both fallen over the last decade.
The number of pensioners in poverty in the capital has remained broadly stable in the last decade, with 250,000 in poverty in 2017/18.
Whilst there are more people in poverty in working families than in workless families, this (at least in part) is a refl…
Poverty rates by demographics
Poverty rates by demographic characteristics in London (2018/19)
Poverty rates vary significantly across different demographic groups in London and the rest of England.
Overall, poverty rates amongst men and women are similar. However, in the rest of England both men and women have a lower poverty rate (with 21% and 22% respectively) compared to those in London (28% and 29% respectively).
Within London, poverty rates are almost twice as high for BME groups (39%) as for white groups (21%). Amongst the different family types, single parents with children are most likely to experience poverty. In London, 54% of this group were in poverty in 2018/19. Between 2014/15 and 2018/19, London pensioners experienced the largest increase in poverty rates. The poverty rate for couple pensioners rose by 6 percentage points (from 15% to 21%) and for single pensioners also by 6 percentage points (from 22% to 28%).
Schools and income deprivation
Average income deprivation percentile of the neighbourhoods that schools are located in by Ofsted rating (2020)
Ofsted ratings are given to schools by inspectors and range from 'Outstanding' to 'Inadequate'. They are based on a range of observations about a school's performance.
This indicator shows that, on average, the better a school’s Ofsted rating is, the less deprived a neighbourhood it tends to be located in.
Whilst this is true across the country, the relationship is less pronounced in London than in the rest of England. This means that children in London who live in deprived neighbourhoods are more likely to have a school with a good Ofsted rating in their neighbourhood than those living in deprived neighbourhoods in the rest of the country.
This is particularly true for secondary schools, where there is not a clear relationship between schools’ Ofsted rating and the deprivation of the neighbourhood in which they a…
Temporary accommodation types
Temporary accommodation types in London (2002-2020 (Q2))
Local authorities, including London boroughs, have legal duties to provide accomodation to people who are homeless. Whilst they are waiting for a permanent solution - such as a home provided by a housing association - local authorities must house them in temporary accommodation such as nightly accommodation, the private rented sector or bed and breakfasts.
Over the last 20 years, the number of households in temporary accommodation at a given point has drastically changed. After the peak of 2006, the number of households in temporary accommodation has drastically decreased up to 2011, where almost 36,000 households were in temporary accommodation. However, since 2012 this number has increased and we’re now at levels close to what we’ve seen in 2006. In 2020 (Q2), over 60,000 London households are in temporary accommodation.
The most preval…
The age distribution of the population
Population by age-groups (2019)
London’s population is comparatively young; the average (median) age in London is 35.6, compared to 40.3 in the UK overall.
More than one in 10 people living in Inner London (11.4%) are aged between 30 and 34. This compares to just 6.3% of those in the rest of England. More broadly, in Inner London, almost half the population is made up out of those who are in their early twenties to early forties (46.7%), compared to the rest of England where three in 10 (30.9%) are in this age group, and Inner London is home to a higher proportion of young people than Outer London.
This is caused by people moving to Inner London for work early in their careers and then leaving as they start families. The largest five-year age band is 30 to 34 year olds in Inner London, 35 to 39 year olds in Outer London and 50 to 54 year olds in the rest of England. A …