Work, Worklessness & Benefits
The nature of work in London
London's Poverty Profile is divided into five themes:
- Living standards;
- Work, worklessness and benefits; and
- Shared opportunities.
Each one provides insights into a range of different indicators of poverty and inequality across London, drawing comparisons over time, between different boroughs and with the rest of the country.
The Work, Worklessness and Benefits theme highlights the nature of work in London and the inequality of work outcomes, including overall employment and unemployment rates, the types of contracts people are on, and their earnings and benefits.
Work, Worklessness & Benefits: Indicators
Proportion of Londoners aged 16-64 on out-of-work benefits by benefit type (2013-2019)
The proportion of working-age Londoners on out-of-work benefits has fallen in the period since 2013 shown in this indicator. The types of benefits claimed by those out of work has also changed in recent years, as Universal Credit has rolled out across the capital.
For example, 0.3% of working-age Londoners were out of work and claiming Universal Credit in 2016. By 2019, this proportion had risen to 2.5% of the working-age population.
Across this whole period, the proportion of the working-age population on out-of-work benefits was higher in the rest of England than in London.
Households affected by the benefit cap
Number of London households affected by benefit cap (2016 and 2019)
The benefit cap limits the amount of benefit that most working-age people can receive. In London, the limit is £23,000 per year or £15,410 for single adults with no children; this was reduced in 2015. The benefit cap is applied by either reducing Universal Credit or Housing Benefit (for those not claiming Universal Credit).
The benefit cap reduced the benefits of nearly 20,000 families in London in November 2019 (11,062 had Universal Credit reduced and another 8,899 had Housing Benefit reduced). The number of families with their benefits capped in London has risen by 76% over the last five years and 87,665 London families have been affected by the cap since its introduction in 2013.
The majority of London households affected by the benefit cap in 2019 had their benefits reduced by up to £50 per month.
Households and their work status by net income quintile
Work status of London households by net income quintile (2017/18)
This indicator shows that household work status is closely related to household net incomes. Overall, households with lower net incomes are more likely to include inactive, retired or unemployed adults.
For example, just 9% of those in the bottom 20% of the net income distribution live in households where all adults work. In contrast, 55% of those in the top 20% of the net income distribution live in households where all adults work. One in five (21%) of those in the bottom net income quintile live in workless households, compared to just 1% of those in the top net income quintile.
Household work status
Work status of London households (2004 - 2018)
The proportion of working-age households where none of the adults are in employment ('workless households') has fallen for over a decade, hitting a low of 8% in 2018, only slightly over half the 2004 rate of 15%. This means that, in 92% of working-age households in London, at least one adult does some work.
In 2018, there were 2.9 million households in London (48%) where all adults were in work. Another 2.6 million households in London (44%) contained some working adults and some who were not in work.
Unemployed men and women
Unemployment counts in London by sex (1992 - 2019)
The number of unemployed people in London has halved since its post-financial crisis peak in 2011 (from 450,000 in 2011 to 210,000 in 2019).
Over the past three decades, the gender split of unemployment has become more even. In 1993, there were almost two unemployed men for every unemployed woman, but by 2013 the numbers were broadly similar with roughly 190,000 of both genders unemployed. Since then, unemployment has fallen faster for women than it has for men, with 129,000 unemployed men in 2019 and 84,000 unemployed women.
Unemployment rate over time (2004/05 - 2018/19)
Unemployment has more than halved in Inner London since 2012/13, from 9.7% of the economically active population to 4.5% in 2018/19. In Outer London, the unemployment rate has fallen from a peak of 9.2% in 2011/12 to 4.7% in 2018/19. Unemployment is consistently higher in London than in England as a whole, where the rate stood at 3.9% in 2018/19.
Unemployment rose after 2007/08 as a result of the financial crisis but had recovered by 2013/14 in Inner London, 2014/15 in England as a whole and 2015/16 in Outer London. Since then, unemployment rates have steadily fallen both in London and England overall.
The last decade has also seen the convergence of unemployment rates in Inner London, Outer London and England. In 2004/05, the unemployment rate in Inner London was almost 75% higher than in England. By 2018/19, the difference between the t…
Unemployment rate, by London borough
Unemployment rate by London borough (2013-16 and 2016-19)
In 2019, the borough with the highest unemployment rate was Tower Hamlets at 7.7%, whilst unemployment in Richmond upon Thames was 3.4%, the lowest in London. The figures presented here are averages of the three years up to the stated year.
In most London boroughs, unemployment fell between 2016 and 2019. The largest falls were seen in Greenwich and Barking and Dagenham which both fell by 3.5 percentage points and Waltham Forest which saw unemployment reduce by 3.3 percentage points.
Unemployment rose the most in Hounslow, where rates were 1.7 percentage points higher in 2019 than 2016.
Unemployment rates by age group
Unemployment rates by age group (2004/05 - 2018/19)
Poverty rates for all age groups are higher in London than in the rest of England, and have been so for the whole time period covered by this indicator. Poverty in London is most prevalent amongst those aged between 16 and 24, with 15.2% of this group being unemployed. This compares to just 3.5% of those aged between 25 and 64. Unemployment is lowest for those aged 65 and over, at 2.4% in 2018/19, however relatively few in this group are either in work or seeking work as the majority are retired.
Compared to other age groups, the unemployment rate for those aged between 16 and 24 rose faster following the financial crisis and has fallen faster since then.
The unemployment rate is the percentage of the economically active population (adults who are not retired, studying, looking after the home, long-term sick etc.) who are either without …
Worklessness by ethnic group
Proportion of London's working-age population who are not in paid work by ethnic group (2008/09 and 2018/19)
In the decade up to 2018/19, every major ethnic group in London has seen a fall in the proportion of people who are not in paid work.
People of Pakistani/Bangladeshi background have the highest rates of not being in paid work, with 41% of the working-age population not working. White people have the lowest rate of being out of work (21%).
The largest proportional change between 2008/09 - 2018/19 was for Indians, where the percentage of people not in work fell by more than a quarter. There are many reasons why an individual aged 16-64 might not be in paid work including studying, long-term illness, looking after the home and unemployment.
Worklessness for men and women by country of birth
Worklessness for men and women in London by country of birth (2018/19)
Of men in London who were born overseas, those from China have the highest rate of worklessness (27%). Of women in London who were born overseas, the highest rate of worklessness is 69%, for those born in Bangladesh.
The lowest rates of worklessness are for men born in South Africa (5%) and for women born in Lithuania (12%). For most countries, the worklessness rate is higher for women than men. However, this trend does not hold true for those born in France, Ireland or Lithuania.
Reasons for worklessness
Reasons for not working for men and women aged 16-64 in London (2018/19)
This indicator shows the reasons for not working for men and women. The largest difference is amongst those who are looking after their family or home. There are 358,700 women within this category, but only 26,600 men (meaning roughly 13.5 times more women than men) are not working due to taking care of their family and home. In contrast, unemployment is higher amongst men (125,400) than women (97,000).
Other categories of reasons for not working are broadly similar, for example with 214,000 men not working because they are students and 215,700 women in the same situation.
Underutilised labour market capacity
Underutilised labour market capacity in London (2008 - 2019)
The number of people wanting to work more than they currently do has fallen steadily in London since 2012. For example, 10.7% of Londoners aged 16-64 were in this position in 2019, compared to 14.4% in 2014.
Each component part of this group has also fallen. For example, 2.6% of working-age adults were in part-time jobs because they could not find a full-time job in 2019, compared to 3.4% in 2014. The combined proportion of people who are not working but would like to (unemployed or inactive but wanting work) has fallen from 11.0% of the working-age population in 2014 to 8.1% in 2019.
Whilst this fall is positive, for those still left wanting more work, there are clear implications for the experience of in-work poverty, demonstrated in other London's Poverty Profile indicators.
Workers in temporary employment
Proportion of workers in London in temporary employment (2008 - 2019)
Over 5% of people in work in London are on temporary contracts. Temporary contracts are more prevalent amongst women in work than men: 50% more women than men were on a temporary contract in 2019.
The proportion of workers on temporary contracts has remained relatively consistent over the past decade, fluctuating between 5% and 6% of all workers. In 2019, 1.15% of women in work and 0.53% of men in work were on a temporary contract and reported that it was because they could not find a permanent job.
Employment rate by highest qualification
Employment rate of 16-64 year olds by highest qualification level (2018)
Employment rates are, on average, higher amongst people with higher levels of qualifications. For example, 88.6% of Londoners aged 16-64 with qualifications higher than A-levels (such as university degrees) were employed in 2019 compared to 49.8% for people with no qualifications.
Across all but the highest qualification level, employment rates are higher in the rest of England than they are in London. However, a much larger proportion of working-age people in London have qualifications higher than A-levels - 53% in London compared to 36% in the rest of England - meaning that overall employment rates are similar.
There are a number of reasons why people may not be employed, including that they are studying, retired, looking after the home, sick or unemployed. As such, it is not necessarily a bad thing for any one individual to not be emp…
Poverty for London's adults, children and pensioners, by family work status
Number of children, adults, and pensioners in London in poverty by working status (2007/08, 2012/13 and 2017/18)
As employment rates have increased in the capital, so too has the number of adults in poverty who are in working families. In 2007/08, 740,000 working-age adults were in poverty in working families, compared to 1.05 million in 2017/18 (a 42% increase over the decade). There is a similar story for children in working families in poverty; 340,000 children were in this position in 2007/08, compared to 550,000 in 2017/18 (an increase of 62% over the decade).
In contrast, the number of working-age adults and children in poverty who are in workless families have both fallen over the last decade.
The number of pensioners in poverty in the capital has remained broadly stable in the last decade, with 250,000 in poverty in 2017/18.
Whilst there are more people in poverty in working families than in workless families, this (at least in part) is a refl…
Poverty rates by type of working household
Proportion of people in London in poverty by type of working houshold over time (1998/99 - 2017/18)
Household work status is closely related to the likelihood of the household being in poverty. This indicator focuses on poverty rates for families in London where at least one adult does some work. It shows that, on average, the fewer adults who are in work, the more likely the household is to be in poverty:
- Those where no adult works full-time but at least one works part-time have the highest poverty rate, with half of people (49%) living in such households being in poverty.
- In contrast, only 9% of people who live in households where all of the adults work full-time are in poverty.
- In households with two adults where only one works, the poverty rate is higher for those where the other adult does not work (32%) than those where the other adult works part-time (15%).
Poverty rates across all working households in London have increased over …
People on out-of-work benefits, by London borough
Proportion of population aged 16 to 64 on out-of-work benefits across London boroughs (2013 and 2019)
The proportion of working-age Londoners on out-of-work benefits has fallen from 10.7% in 2013 to 7.4% in 2019. Overall, this is lower than the rest of England where 8.5% of the population was on out-of-work benefits in 2019.
Whilst the proportion of the working-age population on out-of-work benefits has fallen over this time period in all London boroughs, there remains significant variation in outcomes between London boroughs. For example, in 2019, 10% of the working-age population in Hackney were on out-of-work benefits, whereas the lowest proportion was found in the City of London (3.4%).
This variation was slightly larger in 2013, where 15.6% of the population in Barking and Dagenham were on these benefits and the lowest proportion was found in Richmond upon Thames (5.5%). The largest change in proportion size, by 6 percentage points, …
Travel times and income deprivation
Average travel time by public transport to jobs and services by neighbourhood income deprivation decile (2017)
Based on average travel times by public transport, Londoners have much better access to jobs and services than people in the rest of England. For example, the average journey time by public transport to the nearest large employment centre from the 10% most deprived areas is 20 minutes in London compared to 26 minutes in the rest of England.
Based on the same measure, people living in the most income-deprived areas of London have slightly better access than those in less income-deprived areas. The average journey time to public services is more than 20% longer for the least deprived areas in London than the most deprived areas.
Journey times are only part of how well Londoners can access jobs and services. Price is also an important factor with people on low incomes unable to make the most of the opportunities provided by the city’s publi…
Poverty and industry categories
Main industry categories for those in in-work poverty (2017/18)
This indicator looks at the industries in which those experiencing in-work poverty are most likely to work. For example, 14% of people in London in poverty who are in work are working in human health and social work activities and 9% are working in construction.
Together, the indicator shows that more than half of the people in in-work poverty in London work in one of four industries: human health and social work activities; wholesale and retail trade (including repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles); accommodation and food service activities; and administrative and support services.
Poverty and occupation
Occupations categories for those in in-work poverty (2017/18)
This indicator shows the occupations of those in in-work poverty in London and the rest of England. The most common category is ‘elementary occupations’ with 18% of those in poverty and in-work working within this type of job. This is closely followed by ‘associate professional and technical’ (14%), and ‘caring, leisure and other services’ (13%). These most common occupations contrast with the rest of England where ‘elementary occupations’ are also most common for those in in-work poverty, but the second place goes to ‘skilled trades’ (14%) and there is a smaller share within ‘associate professional and technical’ as well as ‘professional occupations’ (both 9%).
The picture is very different for those working but not counted as being in poverty in London where ‘professional occupations’ make up 27% of jobs.
Poverty and employment status
Employment status of all adults aged 16+ in poverty (2008/09 - 2017/18)
Just over half (51%) of those aged 16 and over who are in poverty in London are economically inactive (retired, long-term sick, studying or looking after the home). Another 6% are unemployed.
However, 44% of those aged 16 and over who are in poverty in London are working. As the employment rate in the capital has increased, the proportion of those in poverty in the capital who are working has also increased (from 35% in 2008/09 to 44% in 2017/18). In contrast, since 2012/13, the proportion of people in poverty who are unemployed - that is, not working but actively seeking work - has declined from 16% to 6%
The proportion of people (aged 16 and over) in poverty who are working is higher in London (44%) than it is in the rest of England (39%).
Labour market activity
Economic activity status of Londoners aged 16 and over (2019)
Over 4.6 million Londoners - 65% of the adult population - are in work of some kind. This is higher than the 61% of adults who are employed in the rest of England.
There are over 400,000 more men in work in London than women. The men who work in London are also more likely to be self-employed, with 23% of men who work in London doing so for themselves compared to 14% of women.
35% of adults in London are economically inactive. Women are significantly more likely to be economically inactive than men, with 41% of women not working compared to 28% of men. For many types of inactivity, women and men have very similar rates, including long-term sickness, studying and unemployment. However, women were significantly more likely to not be working because they were looking after the home or family, with 10% of women - 360,000 people - being homema…
English Index of Multiple Deprivation, rebased for London
English Index of Multiple Deprivation (rebased for London) (2019)
Deprivation varies significantly across London, and, to truly understand the diversity of deprivation across the city, it is useful to adapt national indices to compare within just London itself, excluding variations outside the capital. Mapped here are the deciles of neighbourhoods in London as defined by the Index of Multiple Deprivation, which integrates deprivation domains relating to income, employment, crime, living environment, education, health and barriers to housing and services, in various proportions, to produce an overall index.
Every neighbourhood in England has been given a deprivation score based on various measures which form each domain above, integrated together in various proportions to produce a single value. They are then ranked for England. We have taken these rankings and rebased, by excluding all non-London areas …