Londoners aged 16-64
Most of the indicators on this site relate to working-age adults. Although London children are more likely to live in poverty than adults, the child poverty rate has been falling whilst the working-age poverty rate has slightly increased over the past ten years.
Employment is at a record high in London but insecure and low-paid work has been rising.
London families who are not in work have been particularly affected by the Overall Benefit Cap, especially when this was lowered in November 2017.
From April 2013 Council Tax Benefit was replaced with Council Tax Support, which has, in many boroughs led to a minimum payment requiring all working-age adults to pay some Council Tax regardless of income. (Pensioners were protected by central Government). 101,000 families now pay more than £250 of Council Tax a year, and over 101,000 also pay between £200-250.
London has a lower proportion of people aged over 45 than in the rest of England. A graph of London's population by age is available here.
Working-age adults: Indicators
Out-of-work benefits over time
This graph shows the proportion of the working-age adults claiming an out-of-work benefit in London and the rest of England. This is based on their ‘client group’, and the main reason why they are claiming a benefit. This includes jobseekers, Employment Support Allowance and incapacity benefits claimants, lone parents and others on income-related benefits (for example carer’s allowance) and is shown by the lines on the graph. The bars show the proportion of the working-age population that are claiming one of the four main out-of-work benefits for London only. Universal Credit (UC) will replace all of the benefits shown when it is fully rolled out, a process expected to be complete by 2022. It has been included in the graph for 2015 and 2016 only, as before then the numbers of people who had been transferred onto UC were extremely small. …
Out-of-work benefits map
The map shows the proportion of the working-age population claiming an out-of-work benefit* across London in November 2016. The boroughs of North East and East of London contain the highest concentration of wards with more than 10% of people claiming out-of-work benefits. Most boroughs have a mixture of areas with larger or smaller proportions of people claiming an out-of-work benefit. Hackney, Islington and Barking & Dagenham only have a few areas where less than 10% of the working-age population are claiming an out-of-work benefit. Some boroughs such as Barnet, Harrow, Hounslow, Kingston, Richmond, Merton and Sutton contain no areas where more than 10% of the working-age population are claiming an out-of-work benefit. These are all Outer London boroughs.
The 32 London boroughs, excluding the City of London due to lack…
Council Tax Support
Council Tax Support
This graph shows the impact of the replacement of Council Tax Benefit (CTB) with Council Tax Support (CTS). From April 2013, local authorities across England were required to devise their own systems of CTS for working-age adults, and funding for it was reduced. It replaced the national system of CTB which provided support to low-income families to help with their Council Tax bill. Councils had to keep the previous system in place for pensioners.
The most common change that local authorities have made from the former CTB system has been to introduce a ’minimum payment’ which requires everyone to pay at least some Council Tax regardless of income. This graph shows how much more CTS claimants pay on average relative to the system of national support before April 2013.
Seven boroughs – Camden, Hammersmith & Fulham, Kensington & Chelse…
Overall Benefit Cap
Families affected by the overall benefit cap
This graph shows the number of households affected by the benefit cap, grouped by the weekly cut in their support. The cap was introduced in 2013, based on an annual equivalent of £26,000 a year, with a lower level for single adults without children (£18,200). In 2016, it was reduced further (to £23,000 or £15,410), and by a greater amount outside of Greater London.
In London, in 2017, the number of families affected was 15,300 compared with 8,900 in February 2016, an increase of 6,400.
In 2017, the largest single groups of those affected were families losing up to £25 per week and those losing between £25 and £50 a week, both at around 3,900.
Compared with 2016, the number in each category of cut has increased with the lowering of the value of the cap. In February 2016, there were 890 families losing more than £150 a week, rising to 1,4…
Benefit sanctions over time
The number of JSA sanctions by age, the total number of ESA sanctions from 2009 onwards and Universal Credit sanctions from 2015 onwards. Benefit sanctions are imposed when a claimant fails to comply with the conditions of a benefit without a reason that the DWP finds acceptable. Thus they only apply to the parts of benefits with conditions attached, such as JSA, or the Work-Related Activity Group of Employment and Support Allowance (people in the work-related activity group are not expected to actively seek and apply for work, but they are expected to carry out some activities).
Under UC, they do not apply to the housing element of the benefit. They vary in length and severity depending on the benefit and why the claimant is being sanctioned. For JSA, 100% of benefit is lost for between four weeks up to a maximum of three years. Under ES…
19 year olds lacking qualifications over time
Educational attainment improved more in London than in the rest of England in the early part of the last decade, but since 2012/13, improvements have stalled in many areas. The exception is Level 3 attainment in Inner London, where the proportion of 19-year-olds lacking these qualifications has continued to decline steadily.
In 2016, 19-year-olds in the rest of England were more likely to lack Level 3 qualifications than those in London. 34% of 19-year-olds in Outer London lacked Level 3 qualifications (AS and A-Level qualifications)*, compared with 35% in Inner London and 44% in the rest of England.
The proportion of 19-year-olds lacking Level 2 (GCSE-level qualifications)** is similar in London and the rest of England. 14% of 19-year-olds in Inner London and 12% in Outer London lacked Level 2 qualifications compared with 15% in the rest…
19-year-olds, qualifications & disadvantage
The change in the FSM gap over time
For 19-year-olds in London in 2016, there was a 15 percentage point difference (attainment gap) between the proportion of pupils who had been eligible for free school meals (at age 15) and the proportion of all other students attaining Level 3 qualifications.* For the rest of England, the attainment gap was almost twice as big – 28 percentage points.
The attainment gap has fallen in London (from 19.5% in 2006 to 15% in 2016) over the past decade, while in the rest of England it has not changed significantly.
As discussed in 10.2, the shrinking of the attainment gap is seen as a key factor in
the ‘London effect’.
* In the London Poverty Profile 2015, this indicator used ‘proportion lacking five A* – C GCSEs including maths and English’ which cannot be used this year (see footnote 4). This year’s graph shows the attainment gap (in percenta…
19-year-old qualifications by borough
19 year olds lacking a Level 3 qualification by borough
In every London borough, the majority of 19-year-olds have Level 3 qualifications. Barking & Dagenham has the highest proportion of 19-year-olds lacking Level 3 qualifications at 46%, followed by Havering at 44%.
There is huge variation across boroughs with a 21 percentage point gap between the worst performing borough – Barking & Dagenham, and the best performing boroughs – Redbridge, Kensington & Chelsea and Harrow (in all three, only 25% of 19-year-olds lack Level 3 qualifications).
The pattern of qualifications by borough looks similar to 2014, with boroughs in the Outer West & Northwest and Inner West generally performing better on this measure than Outer East & Northeast. In previous editions of this report, Greenwich has been the worst performer, with 48% lacking a Level 3 qualification in 2014. It is now 41%, an…
Post-school destinations of pupils
This graph shows that London pupils who entered an A-level or equivalent in 2014/15 were more likely to go on to higher education in 2015/16 (58% in Outer London, 57% in Inner London) than their counterparts in the rest of England (47%).
In the rest of England, pupils who undertake A-levels are more likely to move directly into employment at age 19 (24%), than in Outer London (16%) or Inner London (12%). This group of young people is a relatively small proportion of total youth employment at age 19 – 83,000 of the 360,000 employed 19-year-olds. The majority of 19-year-olds in the labour market probably did not take A-levels.*
Young people in London are less likely to undertake apprenticeships after A-levels (4% in Inner & Outer London) than the rest of England (8%). The government hopes the apprenticeship levy**, which came into effect…
Pupils entering Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs)
Both disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged students from London have higher rates of attending higher education institutions (HEIs) than pupils in the rest of England. Disadvantaged students in Inner London actually have the highest rate of attending HEIs – 59%. This will be important to monitor over time, as abolition of maintenance grants (2016) may lead to a decline in disadvantaged students attending HEIs.
This general pattern extends to the top third of HEIs (excluding the Russell Group), with higher proportions of both disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged pupils from London attending these universities than their counterparts in the rest of England.
However, despite educational attainment gains in London for disadvantaged students, this is not translating through to improved representation of poorer students in elite Russell Group univ…
Adult qualifications by borough
Adults lacking Level 3 qualifications by borough
The two worst performing boroughs for 19-year-olds lacking Level 3 qualifications – Havering and Barking & Dagenham – are also the worst performing boroughs for older adults lacking Level 3 qualifications (52% and 48% respectively).
However, in some boroughs, the proportion of 25 to 49-year-olds without a Level 3 qualification is significantly lower than among 19-year-olds. In Lewisham, 37% of 19-year-olds lack these qualifications, compared with only 26% of 25 to 49-year-olds. Some variation by borough is probably due to the age profile of the borough, as older people (40 and over) are more likely to lack qualifications than younger adults. It may also indicate an educational attainment gap between local school leavers and incoming young professionals.
There is little change in the pattern from the previous edition of this report, al…
Work status and income
Household work status and the income distribution
This graph shows the position of Londoners within the UK income distribution by several different work statuses. These are: whether they are in households where all adults are working full-time; all work but one or more is part-time; only some work; none work; or all adults are of pension age. Families where all the adults are working full-time are mainly found in higher income quintiles. However, more than 1 in 10 (13%) adults in the poorest 20% are in households where all adults are working full-time. Families where all adults are in work, but one or more are working part- time, are spread fairly evenly across the second, fourth and fifth quintiles with slightly more found in the middle 20%. There are fewer in the poorest 20% at 1 in 10 (10%). Households where some adults work and some do not are common across the entire distribution, …
Work status of London's households
Household work status over time
This shows how household work status has changed over time in London for families with at least one working-age (16 – 64) adult. The proportion of households where all adults are working has remained fairly constant over time, apart from during the recession. In 2016, 47% of people in London were in a household where all adults were working. In the past 20 years the only time this has dropped below 47% was from 2009 to 2013. During this period there was a substantial fall in the proportion of people in a working household, to 42% in 2012.
The proportion of adults in a mixed household, where only some of the adults are working, has increased over the past 20 years. It increased from 35% in 2001 to 44% in 2016. It increased during the recession to its highest level in 2012 and 2013. It has since fallen, but represents nearly half of all tho…
Unemployed adults in London over time
This graph shows the number of unemployed men and women in London from 1992 to 2016. In 2016, there were 270,000 unemployed people in London, the lowest level since the start of the recession in 2008/09. The figure is down around 27,000 on the previous year.
The recent peak in the number of unemployed men was 230,000 in 2011, although the high point in this data series was more than 300,000 in 1993. At 136,000 in 2016, the number of unemployed men is at its lowest in this series.
There were 134,000 unemployed women in London in 2016, down from a peak of 190,000 in 2011. Unemployment levels for women have been fairly close to the numbers for men, something that is historically unusual in London. This is largely due to increased economic activity for women: previously they were more likely than men to be not working and not seeking work or a…
Unemployment ratio over time
Unemployment ratio over time
This graph shows unemployment as a proportion of the working-age population, (the unemployment ratio). This differs from the unemployment rate, which looks unemployment as a proportion of the economically active population. In 2016, the unemployment ratio was slightly higher in London (4.9%) than the rest of England (3.8%). The ratio in Inner London in 2016 was 5.1%; Outer London was 4.1%.
These rates peaked during the recession at 7.8% and 7.3% for Inner and Outer respectively in 2011. They have since continued to fall, and further converged on the rest of England rate.
Over a longer time period, there has been a substantial convergence over time between London and the rest of England, mainly driven by an improvement in Inner London. In 1994, 11.9% of the working-age Inner London population were unemployed, a ratio that was substa…
Unemployment ratio by borough
Unemployment ratio by borough
The unemployment ratio is the proportion of the working-age population that is unemployed. This graph shows that the ratio has come down significantly in almost all London boroughs in a relatively short timescale. The exceptions are Kensington & Chelsea and Richmond, where there have been slight increases.
The percentage change in the unemployment ratio is drawn out in the graph below.
Unemployment by age
Unemployment by age
This graph shows the level of unemployment by age for both London and the rest of the UK. Unemployment is higher for 16 to 24-year-olds than for older working-age adults in both London and the rest of England. 9.4% of young adults in London are unemployed, compared with 3.6% of 25 to 64-year-olds. In the rest of England, the gures are 8.3% and 2.8% respectively. Young adult unemployment ratios have fallen quickly since 2013 in London and the rest of England, for London down from a peak of 13.9%. While unemployment for young adults in London is higher than in the rest of England by 1.1 percentage points, the difference is not as large as it used to be. Between 1995 and 2004 it was around three percentage points. The gap between the employment rate of 25 to 64-year-olds in London and the rest of England was smaller in 201…
Worklessness by ethnicity
Worklessness by ethnicity
This graph shows worklessness that is either unemployed or economically inactive by ethnicity in 2006 and 2016. It also shows the share of each ethnic group who are workless as a proportion of the total.
In 2016 the worklessness rate for all ethnic groups had fallen compared with 2006, with the exception of those of Mixed ethnicity. Those of Pakistani or Bangladeshi ethnicity had the highest unemployment rate in 2016 at 46%, a decrease of 11* percentage points from 2006. Worklessness was lowest among those of White ethnicity in both 2016 and 2006, at 21% and 26% respectively. Although the proportion of those of White ethnicity who are workless is low, because they make up the majority of the working-age population, they are also the largest share of the unemployed at 49%. This is lower than in 2006 when it was 54%.
The Mixed, Pakistani and…
Worklessness by country of birth
Worklessness by country of birth
This graph shows the proportion of working-age men and women who are workless (unemployed or economically inactive) by their country of birth. The countries shown are the ones with the largest populations in London. In all countries of birth apart from Ireland, including the UK, female workless rates are higher than for males. The differences between genders are explained by levels of economic inactivity rather than unemployment, which suggests that caring responsibilities are a reason for this disparity. There is, however, a large difference between countries. The female workless rate among those born in Afghanistan is 62 percentage points higher than for men, while it is 3 percentage points higher for those born in Jamaica, Germany and Italy. For those born in Ireland the female workless rate is lower than the male worklessness rate by…
Reasons for not working
This chart looks at the working-age adults in London who are not in work. There were 1.5 million workless adults of working age in London in 2016 which is one quarter (26%) of the working-age population. 17% of these workless adults are unemployed, meaning they are available to start working and are seeking work. The larger proportion of workless adults, 83%, is made up of those who are economically inactive, meaning that they are not available for work.
Women are more likely to be workless than men in London – 19% (570,000) of men are workless compared with 33% (980,000) of women. This is because of the large variation in the number of economically inactive men (440,000) and women (840,000). Those who were looking after the family or home contributed the most to this difference: 31,000 men and 340,000 women.
In London more t…
Underemployment over time
Underemployment over time
This graph shows the proportion of the working-age population who are unemployed, economically inactive but who would like to work, and working part-time because they cannot find a full-time job. This represents those who are not working ‘enough’ and who would like to work more. In 2016, 800,000 people, 13.6% of the working-age population, were underemployed. The largest group within this was the economically inactive who want to work. The underemployment rate has fallen for four consecutive years since its high of 17.3% (980,000) in 2012.
The unemployment rate was 5.4% in 2004, and fluctuated around this level until 2009 when it increased to 7% and remained high until 2012 when it was 7.1% (400,000). Since then it has fallen every year until its lowest rate of 4.5% (270,000) in 2016. This has been the larg…
This graph shows the number of workers who are on temporary contracts and the number of workers who are on temporary contracts who could not find a permanent position. It also shows the proportion of temporary workers who are involuntarily on temporary contracts and those on temporary contracts as a proportion of all workers in employment.
In 2016, the number of workers in London on temporary contracts was at an all-time high at 260,000. This is 55,000 more than in 2004 when the number of temporary workers was 200,000.* Despite the growth in workers on temporary contracts, the proportion of all workers in London who are on temporary contracts has remained remarkably consistent since 2004 when it was at 5.8%, nearly the same proportion as in 2016 when it was at 5.7%. The total number of workers has grown at the same rate as the number of t…
Insecure work by age
Insecure workers by age
This graph shows the proportion of employees aged 16 to 64 who are at risk of being in insecure employment by age group in London and the rest of England. Here we define the risk of insecure work as being on a zero-hours contract, in temporary employment, working for an agency, or some combination of these. It is important to note that this does not mean that all workers will experience these forms of employment negatively. This indicator also looks only at employees, and not self- employed workers who might be on a zero-hours, temporary or agency contract.
Since the recession the UK as a whole has seen a larger increase in insecure work than many other countries.* The Trades Union Congress found that the number of people in insecure work, which it defines as those working without guaranteed hours or baseline employment rights, increased …
Employment status and qualifications
Employment by qualification over time
This graph shows the proportion of the working-age population who are in employment, or unemployed and lacking but wanting work, by educational attainment.* Those who are lacking but wanting work are economically inactive and not available to work for various reasons (such as being a student or ill). They are not counted as unemployed.
In 2016 the employment rate for each group had increased compared with 2011. Among workers with a degree or equivalent, the employment rate was 86% in 2016 compared with 83% in 2011. For those with no or unknown qualifications the employment rate was less than half of this in 2016 at 40% and 38% in 2011.
The employment rate increased the most for those with A-levels or equivalent and those with other qualifications. For workers with A-levels or equivalent the employment rate increased by 6 percentage points …
Rough sleeping across London
Rough sleeping across London
75% of all rough sleepers were in Inner London in 2016/17, with 32% in Westminster and 43% in other Inner London boroughs. The number of rough sleepers in Westminster increased over this five-year period, but rose more quickly elsewhere meaning its share of total rough sleepers has fallen.
The proportion of rough sleepers in Outer London has risen from 17% in 2011/12 to 25% in 2016/17, with 2% of total rough sleepers recorded in Heathrow airport. This offers some further evidence of disadvantage in London shifting out towards the outer boroughs.
Low-paid residents by borough
Low paid residents by borough
This graph shows the proportion of employees in each borough who are low paid. The overall proportion of jobs held by employees living in London that were low paid over these two years was 22% (730,000 low-paid residents); 19% (260,000) in Inner London and 24% (470,000) in Outer London. However, there was much variation between the boroughs, with these proportions ranging from 11% for Richmond upon Thames to over 30% for four boroughs. Taking the ten boroughs with the highest proportions of residents who were low-paid, eight were in Outer London.
In 2017/18, as in previous years, Newham had the highest proportion of residents who were low-paid at 32% (36,000 low-paid residents), though it has seen its low pay rate fall over the last few years. Brent, Enfield and Barking & Dagenham were all next at 31%. Brent had t…
Low-paid jobs by borough
Low pay by borough workplace 2018
This graph shows the proportion of jobs in workplaces in each borough that are low paid, regardless of where the employees doing those jobs live. The overall proportion of jobs in workplaces paid below the London Living Wage in London is 19.3%, or 790,000 low-paid jobs. Jobs based in London are less likely to be low paid than the jobs worked by employees living in London. The figure for Inner London is 13% (360,000 low-paid jobs) and for Outer London it is 30% (420,000). The lower proportion for Inner London reflects the large business districts such as the City and Canary Wharf, with highly paid jobs often taken by commuters.
Tower Hamlets and Islington have the lowest proportion of low-paid jobs at 11% each (26,000 and 21,000 low-paid jobs respectively). This is followed by Westminster (12%) and Camden (13%). These are all Inner London…
Low pay by ethnicity
Low pay by ethnicity
The proportion of employees of each ethnic group that are paid below the LLW and the share of low-paid employees that this represents.
Low pay rates vary substantially among ethnic groups. The low pay rate for Bangladeshi and Pakistani employees, at 46%, is more than double the rate for White British employees at 19%. Those from Other ethnic groups and Black/African/ Caribbean/Black British have the next highest rates of low pay, at 37% and 35% respectively.
The ethnic make-up of the working-age population means that the low-paid workforce as a whole looks different from what the numbers above might suggest. The largest group of low-paid workers are White British who make up 34% (310,000) of the low paid. This is a reduction on several years ago and the last London Poverty Profile report, which reflects that the proportion of employees wh…
Low pay by industry
Low pay by industry
The proportion of employees in each industry who are paid below the LLW and the share of low-paid employees that this represents.
Some sectors have a much higher proportion of low-paid jobs than others. The proportion of employees who are low paid is extremely high in the hospitality sector (hotels and restaurants) at 64%. The industry with the second highest proportion of low paid workers is retail and wholesale at 41%. Transportation and storage and private sector services* have the lowest proportion of employees who are low paid, at 4% and 10%. Some private sector service jobs are well paid such as financial and insurance activities and professional, scientific and technical activities, while some are generally less well paid, such as administrative and support work.
Overall there are a large number of jobs in retail and wholesale, so…
Low pay by disability
Low pay by disability
The low pay rates for disabled and non-disabled people by full-time or part-time work and by level of education. In all cases disabled people are more likely to be low paid: 37% of disabled people compared with 27% of non-disabled people. The difference between the low pay rate for disabled and non-disabled adults is smaller for full-time employees than for part-time employees. Of those who are working full-time, 25% of disabled people are low paid compared with 19% of non-disabled people, a six percentage point difference. However, of those who are working part-time 62% of disabled people are low paid compared with 54% of nondisabled people.* This is an eight percentage point difference.
The pattern is the same when looking at education. Of those with A-levels or above 25% of disabled people are low paid compared with 20% of non-disable…
Real weekly earnings - London
The proportion of employees by real gross weekly earnings category. This means that weekly earnings have been adjusted for inflation (using CPIH)* so that it is possible to compare weekly earnings in 2016 with those 10 years ago in 2006. This graph includes both part-time and full-time employees. Part-time employees are generally concentrated towards the bottom of the weekly earnings distribution, due to both fewer hours of work and lower average hourly pay rates. In 2016 in London the median for all employees was £537 and for England –including London – the median was £442.
In 2016 in London, there was a smaller proportion of employees earning more than £600 than in 2006, and there has been an increase in the proportion of employees earning less than £600. This is also true in the rest of England but the change has been less marked.
Low-paid men and women
Low-paid men and women
The number of low-paid jobs by whether they are part-time or full-time and by whether they are held by men or women. In 2016 the biggest group among the low paid were female part-time employees at 220,000, or 31% of the total. Male full-time jobs were the next biggest group (200,000, 27%), followed by female full-time jobs (170,000, 24%). The smallest group with just under a fifth of the total (130,000, 18%) were male part-timers.
The number of low-paid jobs increased over this period by 250,000. There was an increase in the number of low-paid jobs across full- and part-time work for both sexes. The increase in low-paid jobs has not been evenly distributed across the groups shown in the graph, however. The overall increase in the number of low-paid workers between 2011 and 2016 was 52%. For full-time men the increase was 61%, for full-ti…
Low pay by qualification
Low pay by qualification
The proportion of workers who are low paid by qualification level comparing 2011 with 2016. The risk of low pay for employees is lower for those with higher levels of qualifications. In 2016 just over 1 in 10 (13%) employees with a degree or equivalent were low paid whereas for those with no or unknown qualifications the proportion was 7 out of 10 (71%). Those with a degree or equivalent are by far the largest group of employees, they alone are more than half (55%) of all employees. So although this group has a low proportion of low-paid employees, they account for 260,000, 27%, of low-paid employees. Those with no or unknown qualifications only account for 3% of total employees and makeup 9%, 120,000, of those who are low paid.
The proportion of workers who were low paid increased for those at every educational level between 2011 and 20…
What is poverty?
Low income thresholds
The poverty measure typically used in this report is being in a household with an income below 60% of the median. This is adjusted for household size and is after taxes such as income tax and Council Tax. The table below puts these poverty thresholds in the context of similar concepts. For example, a working-age couple with an income below £288 a week before removing housing costs (or £248 after) is considered to be in poverty. On an annual basis, this is equivalent to around £14,980 for this family type before housing costs (BHC), or £12,890 after housing costs (AHC).
However, when members of the public are asked what income is needed to have a socially acceptable minimum standard of living (MIS – Minimum Income Standard – a different concept to poverty), the values are quite a bit higher: £351 a week in Inner Lond…
Poverty by age
Poverty by age
This looks at poverty rates for children, working-age adults, and pensioners in 2003–04 to 2005–06 and in 2013–14 to 2015–16. It uses poverty measured after housing costs (AHC). It splits this by Inner and Outer London, London overall, and the rest of England.
In the three years to 2015–16, 37% of children, 24% of working-age adults, and 19% of pensioners were in poverty in London. In numbers this is 700,000 children, 1.4 million working-age adults, and 200,000 pensioners in poverty.
Compared with a decade earlier, the proportions of both children and pensioners in poverty are lower. The child poverty rate has fallen from 41% to 37%, and the pensioner poverty rate has fallen from 21% to 19%. Despite this, because of population growth, there are now around 90,000 more children in poverty and an unchanged number of pensioners. The proportion…
Work and poverty
Work and poverty
This graph looks at poverty by age and family work status. In the three years to 2015/16, the largest single group in poverty were adults in working families, at 830,000, followed by 540,000 adults in workless families in poverty. There were also 480,000 children in working families in poverty, compared with 220,000 in workless families.
These numbers have changed dramatically over time. Compared with a decade earlier, there are 270,000 more adults in working families in poverty, and 180,000 more children in working families in poverty. Their workless counterparts have fallen by 20,000 and 110,000 respectively. Some changes were more drastic in the preceding decade: the number of pensioners and adults in workless families in poverty fell considerably to 2005–06, but has fallen less since. If we look over just the last five years, there ar…
Poverty and working hours
In-work poverty and work intensity
This indicator looks at the proportion of people in poverty by the family’s work status. The number of hours worked by members of a family is important for determining whether they are likely to be in poverty or not. Families in which all adults were working full time had the lowest proportion in poverty at 8%. In contrast, those with only part-time employees in the family had the highest rate, with 45% in those families in poverty. Families with a self-employed member also had a relatively high poverty risk at 28%.
Over the last 10 years, the proportion of people in every working family type in poverty has increased. It has increased most for those with one full-time employee and one adult not working (six percentage points) and families with a self-employed adult (five percentage points). There has been less change in the last five year…
Premature death by borough
Premature mortality by borough
Premature mortality, measured as the number of deaths of those aged 55 to 64 years old per 100,000 of the population by borough. In 2015, the rate of premature deaths was 566 per 100,000 in London and 613 in England on average. This is lower than the rate in 2011, which was 686 in London and 797 in England. The rate has fallen more quickly in England than in London so they are now much closer than five years ago. A Public Health England study found that between 1990 and 2013 there was a large increase in life expectancy in England. The increase was mainly because of falls in the death rate from cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and some cancers.* There have been improvements in the treatment of these diseases and the introduction of national preventative programmes.**
There is once again a great deal o…
Life expectancy for women without limiting condition
Expected years without limiting conditions at birth (women)
The number of years women can expect to live at birth without a limiting long-term condition or illness for the years 2013–2015. The life expectancy without a long-term condition dataset is created using a self-reported measure of disability. It asks if the respondent has a long-term illness or disability and if this limits their daily activities. This means, for example, that a person who was born deaf but who did not feel that this limited their daily activities would not be included in the calculations whereas a person who became deaf and felt that this limited their daily activities would be. Health expectancies are a measure of overall population health at different geographies and give an indication of the wellbeing of society. It is important that there are differences in life expectancy but the quality of life people experience i…
London's population by age
Age profile of London population
London’s population by age is structured differently to the rest of England’s. London has a much higher proportion of its population in the age range 25–34 than the rest of England. This is particularly the case for Inner London for which it makes up 24% of the population. It makes up 16% of the Outer London population and 13% of the rest of England population. London also has a higher proportion of children under the age of 5 than the rest of England.
London has a lower proportion of people in all age groups from 45 and above in comparison to the rest of England. The difference starts small at just half a percentage point in the 45 – 49 age group but then increases in each age group to a peak of 2.3 percentage points for 65 – 69 year olds. It then slowly decreases again to just 1 percentage point for those aged…
Life expectancy for men without limiting condition
Life expectancy for men
This map shows the life expectancy without a limiting long-term condition for men at birth for the years 2013–2015. Life expectancy without a long-term condition at birth was 64.1 years for London between 2013 and 2015. This was above the England average which was 63 years. As noted above, the measure is subjective and it depends on the respondent’s experience of their illness or disability. There is variation between men and women but it is possible that some of this variation is due to these groups reporting differently.
However, this hides a huge variation between the different London boroughs. In Tower Hamlets, the borough with the lowest life expectancy without a long-term condition, men can only expect to live 54 years without a long-term condition. Whereas in Kingston – the borough with the highest life expectancy without disabili…