Use the interactive tool below to navigate indicators that show how poverty and inequality affects young adults in London.
Young adults: Indicators
19-year-olds without Level 2 or Level 3 qualifications
19-year-olds without Level 2 or Level 3 qualifications (2004/05-2019/20)
Qualification levels of 19-year-olds have significantly improved over time. This is particularly evident in Inner London where the proportion of 19-year-olds without Level 3 qualifications (A Levels and equivalents) has fallen from 61.1% in 2004/05 to 33.5% in 2019/20.
As a result of this, 19 year-olds in Inner London now perform more or less on a par with young people in Outer London and better than their peers in the rest of England (where 44.1% of 19-year-olds lack Level 3 qualifications).
A similar trend can be seen in Level 2 qualifications (the equivalent of GCSEs), although the proportion of 19-year-olds without these qualifications (in London and the rest of England) has risen slightly since 2014/15.
Attainment gap for disadvantaged students
Level 3 attainment gap between Free School Meals and non-Free School Meals students at 19 years-of-age (2005-2020)
The attainment gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students is lower in Inner London than in Outer London and lower in Outer London than it is in the rest of England.
In Inner London in 2020, 19 year olds who were eligible for Free School Meals at the end of Key Stage 4 were 13 percentage points less likely to have gained Level 3 qualifications (equivalent to A levels) than their peers who were not eligible for Free School Meals. In Outer London the figure was 20 percentage points and in the rest of England it was 28 percentage points.
Looking over the past decade, the attainment gap has remained fairly consistent, with Inner London always having a smaller gap than Outer London or the rest of England.
Destinations of school leavers
Destinations of KS5 school leavers in London, after two terms (2019/20)
34% of young people completing KS5 (post-GCSE qualifications) in London in 2019/20 were classed as disadvantaged, compared to 24% in the rest of England. In London, the most common destination was higher education, with similar numbers of disadvantaged (43%) and non-disadvantaged (47%) students going to university. This is very different from the rest of England, where a lower proportion of people attend higher education overall, and the gap between disadvantaged (26%) and non-disadvantaged (38%) students is much greater. In London, young people are less likely to enter work (17%, compared to 25% in the rest of England) or begin an apprenticeship (4%, compared to 8% in the rest of England).
Pupils are classified as disadvantaged in Year 11 if they are either eligible for free school meals in the last 6 years or were looked after by a loca…
Key Stage 5 qualifications and disadvantage
Qualification levels of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged KS5 leavers in London (2020)
In 2020, the majority of London’s KS5 school leavers of both disadvantaged (80%) and non-disadvantaged (83%) backgrounds had Level 3 qualifications (e.g. A-levels).
This is in contrast to the rest of England. A lower proportion (79%) of non-disadvantaged KS5 school leavers had Level 3 qualifications, while only 61% of disadvantaged KS5 school leavers had a Level 3 qualification.
According to the Department for Education, students are considered disadvantaged in Year 11 and attract pupil premium funding if they are eligible for free school meals at any point in the last six years, have been looked after by the local authority, or have been adopted from care.
Net migration between Inner and Outer London
Net migration between Inner and Outer London by age group (2020)
This indicator shows the difference between the number of people arriving and leaving either Inner and Outer London, by different age groups. A negative number shows that there are more people leaving than arriving.
The latest mid-year figures (the year up to June 2020) show that Inner London experienced the largest net inflows of those aged between 20 and 24 – with a net inflow of 15,950 people. However, when compared to pre-pandemic levels in 2019, this is almost 10,000 fewer people. Additionally, the next highest inflow levels were for those aged between 25 and 29 in Inner London – with a net of 5,578 people in 2020. However, this is less than half of the people in comparison to pre-pandemic levels in 2019 (12,107 people).
Outer London saw a net inflow of those aged between 20 and 24 (9,463 similar to the previous year’s 9,360 people…
People sleeping rough
People sleeping rough in London by nationality (2008/09 - 2020/21)
The number of people sleeping rough in London has trebled in a decade. Some 11,018 people were recorded sleeping rough in the capital in 2020/21 compared to 3,673 in 2009/10.
Most people sleeping rough are white, although the number of people from BAME backgrounds sleeping rough has risen faster than the number of white people. Of the people whose nationality is known, just under half are British citizens, with people from the rest of Europe making up most of the rest. A large majority (84%) of people sleeping rough in London are men.
More people sleep rough in Central London than in any other part of the capital. This is consistently the case, but the proportion of people sleeping rough who do so in Central London has fallen from over two thirds in 2011/12 to less than half in 2020/21. This has been primarily driven by a rise in rough sl…
Poverty and qualifications
Proportion of adults in poverty by highest obtained qualification level (2019-20)
People with higher qualification levels are less likely to live in poverty. In London, 36% of people with less than 5 GCSEs and equivalent as their highest qualifications were in poverty. This compares to 21% of people with 5 GCSEs or higher as their highest qualifications.
As with other poverty indicators, poverty rates are greater in London than the rest of England for both people with and without GCSEs. In fact, poverty rates in London for those with 5 GCSEs or higher are only three percentage points lower than for those with low qualifications in the rest of England.
Poverty before and after housing costs by age
Proportion of Londoners in poverty after housing costs by age band (2019/20)
In both London and the rest of England, poverty rates (after housing costs) are highest amongst children and young people in 2019/20.
- Under a quarter of a million (220,000) children aged four and under live in households in poverty;
- More than a third of children aged up to 14 are in households in poverty (35% of those aged 0-4, 36% of those aged 5-9 and 41% of those aged 10-14); and
- Two out of five 15 to 19 year-olds (41%) live in households that are in poverty.
In contrast, one in five Londoners aged 25-29 (19%) live in households that are in poverty - the lowest rate for any age group.
Poverty rates in London are higher than those in the rest of England for people of all ages.
The impacts of housing costs on poverty in the capital can again be seen by comparing these findings to those from measures of poverty before housing cos…
Schools and income deprivation
Average income deprivation percentile of the neighbourhoods schools are located in by Ofsted rating (2021)
Ofsted ratings are given to schools by inspectors and range from 'Outstanding' to 'Inadequate'. They are based on a range of observations about a school's performance.
This indicator shows that, on average, the better a school’s Ofsted rating is, the less deprived a neighbourhood it tends to be located in.
Whilst this is true across the country, the relationship is less pronounced in London than in the rest of England. This means that children in London who live in deprived neighbourhoods are more likely to have a school with a good Ofsted rating in their neighbourhood than those living in deprived neighbourhoods in the rest of the country.
This is particularly true for secondary schools, where there is not a clear relationship between schools’ Ofsted rating and the deprivation of the neighbourhood in which they a…
The age distribution of the population
Population by age-groups (2020)
More than one in 10 people living in Inner London (11.1%) are aged between 30 and 34. This compares to just 6.3% of those in the rest of England. More broadly, in Inner London, almost half the population is made up out of those who are in their early twenties to early forties (46.2%), compared to the rest of England where three in 10 (30.8%) are in this age group, and Inner London is home to a higher proportion of young people than Outer London.
This is caused by people moving to Inner London for work early in their careers and then leaving as they start families. The largest five-year age band is 30 to 34 year olds in Inner London, 35 to 39 year olds in Outer London and 50 to 54 year olds in the rest of England. A relatively small proportion of London’s population is over 65; 10% in Inner London and 13.8% in Outer London compared to 19.…
Unemployment rates by age group
Unemployment rates by age group (2004/05 - 2020/21 Q3)
Unemployment rates have increased in the year to September 2021, and this has been felt most acutely in London by those aged 16-24, who have seen it increase from 16% to 20%.
Unemployment rates for all age groups are higher in London than in the rest of England, which has been true for the whole time period covered by this indicator. Unemployment in London has always been most prevalent amongst those aged between 16 and 24, compared to just 5% of those aged between 25 and 64. Unemployment is also low for those aged 65 and over, at 4% in 2020/21, however relatively few in this group are either in work or seeking work as the majority are retired.
Compared to other age groups, the unemployment rate for those aged between 16 and 24 also rose faster following the financial crisis and has fallen faster since 2014, bottoming in 2018/19 to then r…