Use the interactive tool below to navigate indicators that show how poverty and inequality affects young adults in London.
Young adults: Indicators
19-year-olds without Level 2 or Level 3 qualifications
19-year-olds without Level 2 or Level 3 qualifications (2005-2018)
Qualification levels of 19-year-olds have significantly improved over time. This is particularly evident in Inner London where the proportion of 19-year-olds without Level 3 qualifications (A Levels and equivalents) has fallen from 61% in 2005 to 35.5% in 2018.
In doing so, 19 year-olds in Inner London now perform more or less on a par with young people in Outer London and better than their peers in the rest of England (where 44.1% of 19-year-olds lack Level 3 qualifications).
A similar trend can be seen in Level 2 qualifications (the equivalent of GCSEs), although the proportion of 19-year-olds without these qualifications (in London and the rest of England) has risen slightly since 2015.
Attainment gap for disadvantaged students
Level 3 attainment gap between Free School Meals and non-Free School Meals students at 19 years-of-age (2005 - 2019)
The attainment gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students is lower in Inner London than in Outer London and lower in Outer London than it is in the rest of England.
In Inner London in 2019, 19 year olds who were eligible for Free School Meals at the end of Key Stage 4 were 14 percentage points less likely to have gained Level 3 qualifications (equivalent to A levels) than their peers who were not eligible for Free School Meals. In Outer London the figure was 20 percentage points and in the rest of England it was 28 percentage points.
Looking over the past decade, the attainment gap has remained fairly consistent, with Inner London always having a smaller gap than Outer London or the rest of England.
Destinations of school leavers
Destinations of KS5 school leavers in London, after two years (2018)
In 2018, 41% of London’s Key Stage 5 disadvantaged students went on to pursue higher education for at least two years, in comparison to 46% of non-disadvantaged students. The second most popular destination for disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged students was employment (16% and 17% of each group respectively).
This differs from the rest of England. Overall, the proportion of students who are disadvantaged in the rest of England (22%) is smaller than in London (34%). However, only 21% of disadvantaged Key Stage 5 students in the rest of England went on to pursue higher education for at least two years (almost half of the proportion in London).
This is offset by other destinations in the rest of England, including more disadvantaged students gaining employment after Key Stage 5 (27% in the rest of England, compared to 16% in London) or goi…
Key Stage 5 qualifications and disadvantage
Qualification levels of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged KS5 leavers in London (2018)
In 2018, the majority of London’s KS5 school leavers of both disadvantaged (71%) and non-disadvantaged (77%) backgrounds had Level 3 qualifications (e.g. A-levels).
This is in contrast to the rest of England. Here, while around the same proportion (76%) of non-disadvantaged KS5 school leavers had Level 3 qualifications, only 51% of disadvantaged KS5 school leavers had a Level 3 qualification.
According to the Department for Education, students are considered disadvantaged in Year 11 and attract pupil premium funding if they are eligible for free school meals at any point in the last six years, have been looked after by the local authority, or have been adopted from care.
Net migration in London
Net migration in Inner and Outer London by age (2019)
This indicator shows the difference between the number of people arriving and leaving either Inner and Outer London, by different age groups. A negative number shows that there are more people leaving than arriving.
In 2019, Inner London saw large net inflows of those aged between 20 and 24 (24,464 people) and those aged between 25 and 29 (12,107 people). Outer London saw a net inflow of those aged between 20 and 24 (9,360 people). Although in the same age group, there are 2,109 more people leaving than arriving into Outer London.
In contrast, net migration in both Inner and Outer London was negative for those aged below 15 and above 29. Net outflows from Inner London are particularly evident for those aged between 30 and 39.
People sleeping rough
People sleeping rough in London by nationality (2008/09 - 2019/20)
The number of people sleeping rough in London has almost trebled in a decade. Some 10,726 people were recorded sleeping rough in the capital in 2019/20 compared to 3,673 in 2009/10.
Most people sleeping rough are white, although the number of BAME people sleeping rough has risen faster than the number of white people. Of the people whose nationality is known, around half are British citizens, with EU citizens making up most of the rest. A large majority (83%) of people sleeping rough in London are men.
More people sleep rough in Central London than in any other part of the capital. This has been the case for some time, but the proportion of people sleeping rough who do so in Central London has fallen from over two thirds in 2011/12 to around half in 2019/20. This has been primarily driven by a rise in rough sleeping in East London.
Poverty and qualifications
Proportion of adults in poverty by highest obtained qualification level (2018-19)
People with higher qualification levels are less likely to live in poverty. In London, 32% of people with less than 5 GCSEs and equivalent as their highest qualifications were in poverty. This compares to 22% of people with 5 GCSEs or higher as their highest qualifications.
As with other poverty indicators, poverty rates are greater in London than the rest of England for both people with and without GCSEs. In fact, poverty rates in London for those with 5 GCSEs or higher are only two percentage points lower than for those with low qualifications in the rest of England.
Poverty before and after housing costs by age
Proportion of Londoners in poverty after housing costs by age band (2018/19)
Children, working age adults and pensioners all have higher rates of poverty in London than in the rest of England. Of the three age groups, children have the highest poverty rates with 40% of children in London in poverty, compared to 26% of working-age adults and 23% of pensioners.
In both London and the rest of England, poverty rates fell between 2008/09 and 2018/19 for children and working-age adults in the rest of England. Although, poverty rates remained flat for those working-age adults in London at 20%. Also, the poverty rate for pensioners rose in London but fell in the rest of England.
Qualifications by London borough
Highest qualification levels obtained for working-age population by London borough (2019)
There is a large variation between London boroughs in terms of the proportion of the working-age population that have degree-level or above qualifications. Wandsworth has the highest proportion of its working-age population with degree-level or above qualifications (66.9%), whilst Barking and Dagenham has the lowest (24%).
More than one in 10 of the working population in Hackney (10.8%), Islington (10.5%), Hounslow (10.5%), and Newham (10.1%) are without any formal qualifications.
Schools and income deprivation
Average income deprivation percentile of the neighbourhoods that schools are located in by Ofsted rating (2020)
Ofsted ratings are given to schools by inspectors and range from 'Outstanding' to 'Inadequate'. They are based on a range of observations about a school's performance.
This indicator shows that, on average, the better a school’s Ofsted rating is, the less deprived a neighbourhood it tends to be located in.
Whilst this is true across the country, the relationship is less pronounced in London than in the rest of England. This means that children in London who live in deprived neighbourhoods are more likely to have a school with a good Ofsted rating in their neighbourhood than those living in deprived neighbourhoods in the rest of the country.
This is particularly true for secondary schools, where there is not a clear relationship between schools’ Ofsted rating and the deprivation of the neighbourhood in which they a…
The age distribution of the population
Population by age-groups (2019)
London’s population is comparatively young; the average (median) age in London is 35.6, compared to 40.3 in the UK overall.
More than one in 10 people living in Inner London (11.4%) are aged between 30 and 34. This compares to just 6.3% of those in the rest of England. More broadly, in Inner London, almost half the population is made up out of those who are in their early twenties to early forties (46.7%), compared to the rest of England where three in 10 (30.9%) are in this age group, and Inner London is home to a higher proportion of young people than Outer London.
This is caused by people moving to Inner London for work early in their careers and then leaving as they start families. The largest five-year age band is 30 to 34 year olds in Inner London, 35 to 39 year olds in Outer London and 50 to 54 year olds in the rest of England. A …
Unemployment rates by age group
Unemployment rates by age group (2004/05 - 2019/20 (Q2))
Unemployment rates for all age groups are higher in London than in the rest of England, and have been so for the whole time period covered by this indicator. Unemployment in London is most prevalent amongst those aged between 16 and 24, with 14.9% of this group being unemployed in 2019/20. This compares to just 3.5% of those aged between 25 and 64. Unemployment is also low for those aged 65 and over, at 3% in 2019/20, however relatively few in this group are either in work or seeking work as the majority are retired.
Compared to other age groups, the unemployment rate for those aged between 16 and 24 rose faster following the financial crisis and has fallen faster since then. The impact of Covid is not yet shown in unemployment data, with relatively little difference in the most recent figure compared to those from 2018/19.