Use the interactive tool below to navigate indicators that show how poverty and inequality affects men and women in London.
Actual weekly hours by gross weekly pay quintile across Q2 - Q3 in London and the rest of England (2010-2021)
Looking at hours worked within London and the rest of England can give us a useful insight on our working patterns pre- and post-pandemic. Actual hours worked are heavily impacted by external factors, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas usual hours are not expected to change much over the years.
Actual hours worked varied particularly between 2019 and 2020 for the bottom income quintiles within England. Within London, the decline in actual hours worked for the 2nd income quintile is most extreme between 2019 and 2020 - dropping from 36.8 to 25.6 hours per week. For almost all income quintiles, the amount of actual hours worked has bounced back to pre-pandemic levels as the economy recovers. However, for those in the 2nd income quintile, the amount of hours in 2021 (33.1 hours) are still below pre-pandemic levels in 2019 (36.8 hours).
Labour market activity
Economic activity status of Londoners aged 16 and over (2020/21 Q3)
Nearly 4.68 million Londoners - 65% of the adult population - were in work of some kind as measured across the year to September 2021. This is higher than the 59% of adults who are employed in the rest of England. Nearly three in ten adults in London are classed as economically inactive (30%).
There are over 300,700 more men in work in London than women. The men who work in London are also more likely to be self-employed, with 13% of men who work in London doing so for themselves compared to 8% of women.
Women are significantly more likely to be economically inactive than men, with 38% of women not working compared to 25% of men. For many types of inactivity, women and men have very similar rates, including long-term sickness, studying and temporary sickness.
However, women were significantly more likely to not be working because they wer…
Life expectancy by London borough
Life expectancy at birth by London borough (2017-19)
This indicator shows overall life expectancy at birth as well as healthy life expectancy. The latter indicates the number of years a person can expect to live in good health rather than with a disability or in poor health.
Overall, life expectancy is higher for women than for men in 2017 to 2019. This is true across all London boroughs. However, this is less clear for healthy life expectancy, with some boroughs having a longer healthy life expectancy for men than women. For example, healthy life expectancy for men in Tower Hamlets is 62.9 years whereas for women it is only 59.2 years.
The highest life expectancy for both men and women is in Westminster, with 84.9 and 87.2 respectively. The lowest life expectancy for both men (78.1 years) and women (82.3 years) is found in Barking and Dagenham, however it is notable that the borough perform…
This page looks at jobs held by London residents that are paid below the London Living Wage broken down by:
- employment type (full-time and part-time)
- sex and employment type
- qualification level
- employment status (permanent and non-permanent)
These may be located within London or outside the capital. For a similar analysis focused on jobs located in London only, please see 'Low-paid jobs in London'.
From the introduction of the London Living Wage in 2005, low-paid jobs held by Londoners rose over the decade to 2015, when almost 1 in 4 jobs (23.4%) held by Londoners were low-paid.
Although the number of jobs held by London residents in low-paid jobs was split more or less evenly between those in part-time and those in full-time jobs, the proportions are quite different. While more than 1 in 2 part-time jobs held by…
Low pay in London boroughs
This page looks at jobs paid below London Living Wage across London boroughs. Here we use data restricted to jobs held by people who live in London (residence-based), and their job may be based outside of London. For jobs located in boroughs, please see 'Low-paid jobs in London', chart four.
Most boroughs follow the same trend for London as a whole, with significant increases in low-paid jobs held by residents in most London boroughs between 2011 and 2019, and reductions in 2020 and 2021 (partly reflecting the distorting effects of the pandemic and furlough in London labour markets).
Brent and Enfield were the boroughs in 2021 that saw the highest proportions of residents’ jobs being paid less than the London Living Wage with 29.5% and 29% respectively. By contrast, Kensington and Chelsea and Richmond upon Thames saw only 10.5% …
People sleeping rough
People sleeping rough in London by nationality (2008/09 - 2020/21)
The number of people sleeping rough in London has trebled in a decade. Some 11,018 people were recorded sleeping rough in the capital in 2020/21 compared to 3,673 in 2009/10.
Most people sleeping rough are white, although the number of people from BAME backgrounds sleeping rough has risen faster than the number of white people. Of the people whose nationality is known, just under half are British citizens, with people from the rest of Europe making up most of the rest. A large majority (84%) of people sleeping rough in London are men.
More people sleep rough in Central London than in any other part of the capital. This is consistently the case, but the proportion of people sleeping rough who do so in Central London has fallen from over two thirds in 2011/12 to less than half in 2020/21. This has been primarily driven by a rise in rough sl…
Poverty rates by demographics
Poverty rates by demographic characteristics in London (2019/20)
Poverty rates vary significantly across different demographic groups in London and the rest of England.
Overall, poverty rates amongst men and women are similar. However, in the rest of England both men and women have a lower poverty rate (both 21%) compared to those in London (28% and 29% respectively).
Both in London and the Rest of England, poverty rates are higher for BME people (39% and 38%) than for White groups (21% and 19%). Amongst the different family types, single parents with children are most likely to experience poverty. In London, 53% of this group were in poverty in 2019/20. Between 2014/15 and 2019/20, London pensioners experienced the largest increase in poverty rates. The poverty rate for couple pensioners rose by 6 percentage points (from 15% to 21%) and for single pensioners also by 6 percentage points (from 22% to 28%…
Unemployed men and women
Unemployment rates in London for men and women (1992-2021 Q3)
The unemployment rate in London more than halved since its post-financial crisis peak in 2011 (10.3%) to 4.5% in 2019. 2020 saw it increase substantially to 6.6%, reaching levels not seen since 2014, before starting to drop back again in 2021 (5.4%). This increase is likely the result of the slowdown of the economy caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the very start of which is captured by this indicator. Other factors, such as those put on furlough and the change in inactivity within the labour market, should also be considered.
Over the past three decades, the gender split of unemployment has become more even. In 1993 the unemployment rate was more than 40% higher amongst men compared to women, but by the early 2010s the numbers were broadly similar for both genders. Since 2011, the unemployment rate has fallen similarly for both women (fr…
Workers in temporary employment
Proportion of workers in London in temporary employment (2010-2021 Q3)
Around 5% of people in work in London are on temporary contracts. Temporary contracts are more prevalent amongst women in work than men: around 60% more women than men were on a temporary contract in 2021.
The proportion of workers on temporary contracts has remained relatively consistent over the past decade, fluctuating between just under 5% and just over 6% of all workers. In 2021, 0.92% of women in work and 0.6% of men in work were on a temporary contract and reported that it was because they could not find a permanent job.
Worklessness for men and women by country of birth
Worklessness for men and women in London by country of birth (2020/21 Q3)
Just under two-thirds (65%) of working-age women in London who were born in Pakistan did not work in the year to September 2020/21, the highest rate of any nationality. Bangladeshi women are not far behind with 64% not working. Of men in London who were born overseas, those from Bangladesh and the Philippines have the joint-highest rate of worklessness (30% and 28%).
Women originally from Portugal had the lowest rates of worklessness (14%), while those from Australia and Germany had the lowest rate for men (9%). For most countries, the worklessness rate is higher for women than men, although this trend does not hold true for countries such as Lithuania, Portugal, and Italy.