Use the interactive tool below to navigate indicators that show how poverty and inequality affects different groups in London.

Ethnicity: Indicators

GCSE attainment by ethnicity (2020)

GCSE attainment is higher in London than in the rest of England. This was true for both boys and girls, students who do not speak English as a first language, students with Special Educational Needs, and students from minority ethnic backgrounds.

Attainment increased from 2020 to 2019 both in London and the rest of England across almost all groups. The only exception were Asian students, whose grades fell between 2020 and 2019. The largest relative rise in attainment was recorded for students with special education needs.

The increase in grades from 2019 to 2020 far surpasses year-on-year increases observed historically, so it is unlikely to be wholly accounted for by regular grade inflation. Attainment in maths, for instance, fell between 2017 and 2019 in London, while attainment in English remained broadly similar. The sharp increase in …

Key population statistics for London and it's sub-regions

Region Total population Population change (2010-2020) Population per km2 % BME % not UK-born
London sub-region: Central 1,607,000 14% 12,475 34% 40%
London sub-region: East 2,869,200 13% 6,214 44% 37%
London sub-region: North 999,000 9% 2,164 34% 37%
London sub-region: South 1,644,400 8% 4,221 31% 31%
London sub-region: West 1,882,800 6% 4,770 50% 40%
London 9,002,400 10% 5,727 40% 37%
Rest of England 47,547,700 6% 369 11% 11%

Data source: Mid-year population estimates (2020), Population of the UK by country of birth and nationality ONS (2020), via NOMIS. Ethnic group populations from Annual Population Survey ONS (2020), via London Datastore.

More than 9.0 million people live in London. Between 2010 and 2020, London’s population increased at a faster rate than the rest of England. Central London saw the biggest increase (14%), closely followed by East London with 13%. London’s overall growth of 10% is higher than the rest of England’s growth of 6%. 

Central London has the highest level of population density with 12,475 people per km2, which is over twice the level of London overall. Still, London overall is 15 times more dense than the rest of England, with 5,727 and 369 people per km2 respectively.

40% of Londoners are Black and Minority Ethnic and 37% are not b…

This page looks at jobs held by London residents that are paid below the London Living Wage broken down by:

  • employment type (full-time and part-time)
  • sex
  • sex and employment type
  • ethnicity
  • disability
  • qualification level
  • employment status (permanent and non-permanent)

These may be located within London or outside the capital. For a similar analysis focused on jobs located in London only, please see 'Low-paid jobs in London'.

From the introduction of the London Living Wage in 2005, low-paid jobs held by Londoners rose over the decade to 2015, when almost 1 in 4 jobs (23.4%) held by Londoners were low-paid.

Although the number of jobs held by London residents in low-paid jobs was split more or less evenly between those in part-time and those in full-time jobs, the proportions are quite different. While more than 1 in 2 part-time jobs held by…

Poverty rates by demographic characteristics in London (2019/20)

Poverty rates vary significantly across different demographic groups in London and the rest of England.

Overall, poverty rates amongst men and women are similar. However, in the rest of England both men and women have a lower poverty rate (both 21%) compared to those in London (28% and 29% respectively).

Both in London and the Rest of England, poverty rates are higher for BME people (39% and 38%) than for White groups (21% and 19%). Amongst the different family types, single parents with children are most likely to experience poverty. In London, 53% of this group were in poverty in 2019/20. Between 2014/15 and 2019/20, London pensioners experienced the largest increase in poverty rates. The poverty rate for couple pensioners rose by 6 percentage points (from 15% to 21%) and for single pensioners also by 6 percentage points (from 22% to 28%…

Proportion of London's working-age population who are not in paid work by ethnic group (2009/10 and 2020/21 Q3)

In the decade up to 2020/21, every major ethnic group in London has seen a fall in the proportion of people who are not in paid work. 

People of Pakistani/Bangladeshi background have the highest rates of not being in paid work, with 39% of the working-age population not working. This is, however, down from 52% a decade ago. 

The largest fall in rates of worklessness can be seen in people of 'Other' ethnicity.

Indian people have the lowest rate of being out of work (21%), and White people have seen the smallest fall (of 5 percentage points) in the last decade. 

The definition of worklessness used here includes unemployment as well as many types of economic inactivity including looking after the family/home, students, long term and temporary sickness etc. (see our indicator on Reasons for Not Working for a full list of these groups).…

Worklessness for men and women in London by country of birth (2020/21 Q3)

Just under two-thirds (65%) of working-age women in London who were born in Pakistan did not work in the year to September 2020/21, the highest rate of any nationality. Bangladeshi women are not far behind with 64% not working. Of men in London who were born overseas, those from Bangladesh and the Philippines have the joint-highest rate of worklessness (30% and 28%). 

Women originally from Portugal had the lowest rates of worklessness (14%), while those from Australia and Germany had the lowest rate for men (9%). For most countries, the worklessness rate is higher for women than men, although this trend does not hold true for countries such as Lithuania, Portugal, and Italy.